Tag Archives: Possession Controlled Substance Virginia

Disorderly Conduct Virginia Laws 18.2-415 Fairfax Richmond Beach Loudoun Prince William

Disorderly Conduct Defense – Virginia Lawyers

There are many different penalties for Disorderly Conduct charges in Virginia.

If you have been charged with Disorderly Conduct in Virginia, contact our firm immediately for help.

We have client meeting locations in Fairfax Richmond Virginia Beach Loudoun Prince William Fredericksburg & Lynchburg.

Disorderly Conduct Defense In Virginia

We will do our absolute best to help you get the best result possible based on the facts of your case.

Disorderly Conduct Virginia Laws 18.2-415

Disorderly Conduct Virginia Laws 18.2-415

VIRGINIA LAWYERS -Disorderly conduct in public places STATUTE

Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-415

§ 18.2-415. Disorderly conduct in public places

A person is guilty of disorderly conduct if, with the intent to cause public inconvenience, annoyance or alarm, or recklessly creating a risk thereof, he:

A. In any street, highway, public building, or while in or on a public conveyance, or public place engages in conduct having a direct tendency to cause acts of violence by the person or persons at whom, individually, such conduct is directed; or

B. Willfully or being intoxicated, whether willfully or not, and whether such intoxication results from self-administered alcohol or other drug of whatever nature, disrupts any funeral, memorial service, or meeting of the governing body of any political subdivision of this Commonwealth or a division or agency thereof, or of any school, literary society or place of religious worship, if the disruption (i) prevents or interferes with the orderly conduct of the funeral, memorial service, or meeting or (ii) has a direct tendency to cause acts of violence by the person or persons at whom, individually, the disruption is directed; or

C. Willfully or while intoxicated, whether willfully or not, and whether such intoxication results from self-administered alcohol or other drug of whatever nature, disrupts the operation of any school or any activity conducted or sponsored by any school, if the disruption (i) prevents or interferes with the orderly conduct of the operation or activity or (ii) has a direct tendency to cause acts of violence by the person or persons at whom, individually, the disruption is directed.

However, the conduct prohibited under subdivision A, B or C of this section shall not be deemed to include the utterance or display of any words or to include conduct otherwise made punishable under this title.

The person in charge of any such building, place, conveyance, meeting, operation or activity may eject therefrom any person who violates any provision of this section, with the aid, if necessary, of any persons who may be called upon for such purpose.

The governing bodies of counties, cities and towns are authorized to adopt ordinances prohibiting and punishing the acts and conduct prohibited by this section, provided that the punishment fixed therefor shall not exceed that prescribed for a Class 1 misdemeanor. A person violating any provision of this section shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

VIRGINIA-Disorderly conduct in public places

Virginia Statute

Description

Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-415 (A)Disorderly conduct in public places In any street, highway, public building, or while in or on a public conveyance, or public place engages in conduct having a direct tendency to cause acts of violence by the person or persons at whom, individually, such conduct is directed; or
Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-415(B) Disorderly conduct in public places Willfully or being intoxicated, whether willfully or not, and whether such intoxication results from self-administered alcohol or other drug of whatever nature, disrupts any funeral, memorial service, or meeting of the governing body of any political subdivision of this Commonwealth or a division or agency thereof, or of any school, literary society or place of religious worship, if the disruption

  • prevents or interferes with the orderly conduct of the funeral, memorial service, or meeting or
  • has a direct tendency to cause acts of violence by the person or persons at whom, individually, the disruption is directed; or
Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-415(C) Disorderly conduct in public places the operation of any school or any activity conducted or sponsored by any school, if the disruption

  • prevents or interferes with the orderly conduct of the operation or activity or
  • has a direct tendency to cause acts of violence by the person or persons at whom, individually, the disruption is directed.
Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-415 Disorderly conduct in public places However, the conduct prohibited under subdivision A, B or C of this section shall not be deemed to include the utterance or display of any words or to include conduct otherwise made punishable under this title.
Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-415 Disorderly conduct in public places The person in charge of any such building, place, conveyance, meeting, operation or activity may eject therefrom any person who violates any provision of this section, with the aid, if necessary, of any persons who may be called upon for such purpose.
Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-415  Penalties The governing bodies of counties, cities and towns are authorized to adopt ordinances prohibiting and punishing the acts and conduct prohibited by this section, provided that the punishment fixed therefor shall not exceed that prescribed for a Class 1 misdemeanor Class 1 misdemeanor.

Some of the courts we cover in Virginia:

Fairfax Circuit Court Richmond Circuit Court
4110 Chain Bridge Road
Fairfax, VA 22030
400 North Ninth Street
John Marshall Courts Building
Richmond, VA 23219
Fairfax General District Court Richmond General District Court
4110 Chain Bridge Road
Fairfax, VA 22030
920 Hull Street, Northside
Richmond, VA 23224-4070
Fairfax Juvenile & Domestic Relations District Court Richmond Juvenile & Domestic Relations District Court
4110 Chain Bridge Road
Fairfax, VA 22030-4020
Oliver Hill Courts Building
1600 Oliver Hill WaySuite C181
Richmond, VA 23219-1214
Prince William Circuit Court Loudoun Circuit Court
9311 Lee Avenue
Manassas, VA 20110
P. O. Box 55018 E. Market St., 3rd floor
Leesburg, VA 20178
Prince William General District Court Loudoun General District Court
9311 Lee Avenue
Manassas, VA 20110-5586
18 East Market Street
Leesburg, VA 20176
Prince William Juvenile & Domestic Relations District Court Loudoun Juvenile & Domestic Relations District Court
9311 Lee Avenue
Manassas, VA 20110-5555
18 East Market Street
Leesburg, VA 20176
Virginia Beach Circuit Court
2425 Nimmo Parkway
Building 10, 4th Floor
Virginia Beach, VA 23456-9017
Virginia Beach General District Court
2425 Nimmo Parkway
Virginia Beach, VA 23456-9057
Virginia Beach Juvenile & Domestic Relations District
Court
2425 Nimmo Parkway, Building 10
Judicial Complex 10 AMunicipal Center
Virginia Beach, VA 23456

We have client meeting locations in Fairfax Richmond Virginia Beach Loudoun Prince William Fredericksburg & Lynchburg.

Disorderly Conduct Defense In Virginia

We will do our absolute best to help you get the best result possible based on the facts of your case.

We also cover the following courts in Virginia:

Herndon General District Court
765 Lynn Street,
Herndon, VA 20170
Vienna General District Court
127 South Center Street,
Vienna, VA 22180
Falls Church General District Court
300 Park Avenue, Room 107E
Falls Church, VA 22046-3350

Article written by A Sris

Click to Chat

Disclaimer:

These summaries are provided by the SRIS Law Group. They represent the firm’s unofficial views of the Justices’ opinions. The original opinions should be consulted for their authoritative content.

Disorderly Conduct Virginia Laws 18.2-415

Disorderly Conduct Defense – Virginia Lawyers

There are many different penalties for Disorderly Conduct charges in Virginia.

If you have been charged with Disorderly Conduct in Virginia, contact our firm immediately for help.

We have client meeting locations in Fairfax Richmond Virginia Beach Loudoun Prince William Fredericksburg & Lynchburg.

Disorderly Conduct Defense In Virginia

We will do our absolute best to help you get the best result possible based on the facts of your case.

Disorderly Conduct Virginia Laws 18.2-415

Disorderly Conduct Virginia Laws 18.2-415

VIRGINIA LAWYERS -Disorderly conduct in public places STATUTE

Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-415

§ 18.2-415. Disorderly conduct in public places

A person is guilty of disorderly conduct if, with the intent to cause public inconvenience, annoyance or alarm, or recklessly creating a risk thereof, he:

A. In any street, highway, public building, or while in or on a public conveyance, or public place engages in conduct having a direct tendency to cause acts of violence by the person or persons at whom, individually, such conduct is directed; or

B. Willfully or being intoxicated, whether willfully or not, and whether such intoxication results from self-administered alcohol or other drug of whatever nature, disrupts any funeral, memorial service, or meeting of the governing body of any political subdivision of this Commonwealth or a division or agency thereof, or of any school, literary society or place of religious worship, if the disruption (i) prevents or interferes with the orderly conduct of the funeral, memorial service, or meeting or (ii) has a direct tendency to cause acts of violence by the person or persons at whom, individually, the disruption is directed; or

C. Willfully or while intoxicated, whether willfully or not, and whether such intoxication results from self-administered alcohol or other drug of whatever nature, disrupts the operation of any school or any activity conducted or sponsored by any school, if the disruption (i) prevents or interferes with the orderly conduct of the operation or activity or (ii) has a direct tendency to cause acts of violence by the person or persons at whom, individually, the disruption is directed.

However, the conduct prohibited under subdivision A, B or C of this section shall not be deemed to include the utterance or display of any words or to include conduct otherwise made punishable under this title.

The person in charge of any such building, place, conveyance, meeting, operation or activity may eject therefrom any person who violates any provision of this section, with the aid, if necessary, of any persons who may be called upon for such purpose.

The governing bodies of counties, cities and towns are authorized to adopt ordinances prohibiting and punishing the acts and conduct prohibited by this section, provided that the punishment fixed therefor shall not exceed that prescribed for a Class 1 misdemeanor. A person violating any provision of this section shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

VIRGINIA-Disorderly conduct in public places

Virginia Statute

Description

Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-415 (A)Disorderly conduct in public places In any street, highway, public building, or while in or on a public conveyance, or public place engages in conduct having a direct tendency to cause acts of violence by the person or persons at whom, individually, such conduct is directed; or
Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-415(B) Disorderly conduct in public places Willfully or being intoxicated, whether willfully or not, and whether such intoxication results from self-administered alcohol or other drug of whatever nature, disrupts any funeral, memorial service, or meeting of the governing body of any political subdivision of this Commonwealth or a division or agency thereof, or of any school, literary society or place of religious worship, if the disruption

  • prevents or interferes with the orderly conduct of the funeral, memorial service, or meeting or
  • has a direct tendency to cause acts of violence by the person or persons at whom, individually, the disruption is directed; or
Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-415(C) Disorderly conduct in public places the operation of any school or any activity conducted or sponsored by any school, if the disruption

  • prevents or interferes with the orderly conduct of the operation or activity or
  • has a direct tendency to cause acts of violence by the person or persons at whom, individually, the disruption is directed.
Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-415 Disorderly conduct in public places However, the conduct prohibited under subdivision A, B or C of this section shall not be deemed to include the utterance or display of any words or to include conduct otherwise made punishable under this title.
Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-415 Disorderly conduct in public places The person in charge of any such building, place, conveyance, meeting, operation or activity may eject therefrom any person who violates any provision of this section, with the aid, if necessary, of any persons who may be called upon for such purpose.
Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-415  Penalties The governing bodies of counties, cities and towns are authorized to adopt ordinances prohibiting and punishing the acts and conduct prohibited by this section, provided that the punishment fixed therefor shall not exceed that prescribed for a Class 1 misdemeanor Class 1 misdemeanor.

We have client meeting locations in Fairfax Richmond Virginia Beach Loudoun Prince William Fredericksburg & Lynchburg.

Disorderly Conduct Defense In Virginia

We will do our absolute best to help you get the best result possible based on the facts of your case.

Article written by A Sris

Click to Chat

Disclaimer:

These summaries are provided by the SRIS Law Group. They represent the firm’s unofficial views of the Justices’ opinions. The original opinions should be consulted for their authoritative content.

 

Simple Possession Marijuana Law 18.2-250.1 Virginia Laws Fairfax Richmond Beach Loudoun Prince William

Simple Possession of Marijuana Defense – Virginia Lawyers

There is one specific statute that provides the definition of simple possession of marijuana in Virginia. Virginia Code 18.2-250.1. First and foremost, it is a misdemeanor charge.

If you have been charged with simple possession of marijuana in Virginia, contact our firm immediately for help.

We have client meeting locations in Fairfax, Richmond, Virginia Beach, Loudoun, Prince William, Fredericksburg & Lynchburg.

Simple Possession Marijuana Law 18.2-250.1

Simple Possession Marijuana Law 18.2-250.1

Virginia Code 18.2-250.1. Possession of marijuana unlawful.

A. It is unlawful for any person knowingly or intentionally to possess marijuana unless the substance was obtained directly from, or pursuant to, a valid prescription or order of a practitioner while acting in the course of his professional practice, or except as otherwise authorized by the Drug Control Act (§ 54.1-3400 et seq.).

Upon the prosecution of a person for violation of this section, ownership or occupancy of the premises or vehicle upon or in which marijuana was found shall not create a presumption that such person either knowingly or intentionally possessed such marijuana.

Any person who violates this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and be confined in jail not more than thirty days and a fine of not more than $500, either or both; any person, upon a second or subsequent conviction of a violation of this section, shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

B. The provisions of this section shall not apply to members of state, federal, county, city or town law-enforcement agencies, jail officers, or correctional officers, as defined in § 53.1-1, certified as handlers of dogs trained in the detection of controlled substances when possession of marijuana is necessary for the performance of their duties.

Some of the courts we cover in Virginia:
Fairfax Circuit Court Richmond Circuit Court
4110 Chain Bridge Road
Fairfax, VA 22030
400 North Ninth Street
John Marshall Courts Building
Richmond, VA 23219
Fairfax General District Court Richmond General District Court
4110 Chain Bridge Road
Fairfax, VA 22030
920 Hull Street, Northside
Richmond, VA 23224-4070
Fairfax Juvenile & Domestic Relations District Court Richmond Juvenile & Domestic Relations District Court
4110 Chain Bridge Road
Fairfax, VA 22030-4020
Oliver Hill Courts Building
1600 Oliver Hill WaySuite C181
Richmond, VA 23219-1214
Prince William Circuit Court Loudoun Circuit Court
9311 Lee Avenue
Manassas, VA 20110
P. O. Box 55018 E. Market St., 3rd floor
Leesburg, VA 20178
Prince William General District Court Loudoun General District Court
9311 Lee Avenue
Manassas, VA 20110-5586
18 East Market Street
Leesburg, VA 20176
Prince William Juvenile & Domestic Relations District Court Loudoun Juvenile & Domestic Relations District Court
9311 Lee Avenue
Manassas, VA 20110-5555
18 East Market Street
Leesburg, VA 20176
Virginia Beach Circuit Court
2425 Nimmo Parkway
Building 10, 4th Floor
Virginia Beach, VA 23456-9017
Virginia Beach General District Court
2425 Nimmo Parkway
Virginia Beach, VA 23456-9057
Virginia Beach Juvenile & Domestic Relations District
Court
2425 Nimmo Parkway, Building 10
Judicial Complex 10 AMunicipal Center
Virginia Beach, VA 23456
Virginia Statute Penalties
Va. Code Ann § 18.2-250.1 Any person who knowingly or intentionally possesses marijuana unless the substance was obtained directly from, or pursuant to, a valid prescription or order of a practitioner First Offense Shall be guilty of misdemeanor. Imprisoned up to 30 days and fine up to $500, either or both
Second or Subsequent Offense Class 1 misdemeanor

If you have been charged with simple possession of marijuana in Virginia, contact If you have been charged with simple possesion of marijuana in Virginia, contact our firm immediately for help.

We have client meeting locations in Fairfax, Richmond, Virginia Beach, Loudoun, Prince William, Fredericksburg & Lynchburg.

We also cover the following courts in Virginia:

Herndon General District Court
765 Lynn Street,
Herndon, VA 20170
Vienna General District Court
127 South Center Street,
Vienna, VA 22180
Falls Church General District Court
300 Park Avenue, Room 107E
Falls Church, VA 22046-3350

Article written by A Sris
Click to Chat

Disclaimer:

These summaries are provided by the SRIS Law Group. They represent the firm’s unofficial views of the Justices’ opinions. The original opinions should be consulted for their authoritative content.

Prescription Fraud Forgery Virginia Laws 18.2-258.1 Fairfax Richmond Loudoun Prince William Beach

Prescription Fraud/Forgery Defense – Virginia Lawyers

Virginia Criminal Defense Lawyer

There are many different applicable laws & penalties for prescription fraud/forgery charges in Virginia. First and foremost, it can be charged as a misdemeanor or a felony offense.

If you have been charged with prescription fraud/forgery in Virginia, contact our firm immediately for help.

We have client meeting locations in Fairfax, Richmond, Virginia Beach, Loudoun, Prince William, Fredericksburg & Lynchburg.

Prescription Fraud Forgery Virginia Laws 18.2-258.1

Prescription Fraud Forgery Virginia Laws 18.2-258.1

Prescription Fraud/Forgery Defense In Virginia

§ 18.2-258.1. Obtaining drugs, procuring administration of controlled substances, etc., by fraud, deceit or forgery

  1. It shall be unlawful for any person to obtain or attempt to obtain any drug or procure or attempt to procure the administration of any controlled substance, marijuana, or synthetic cannabinoids: (i) by fraud, deceit, misrepresentation, embezzlement, or subterfuge; or (ii) by the forgery or alteration of a prescription or of any written order; or (iii) by the concealment of a material fact; or (iv) by the use of a false name or the giving of a false address.
  2. It shall be unlawful for any person to furnish false or fraudulent information in or omit any information from, or willfully make a false statement in, any prescription, order, report, record, or other document required by Chapter 34 (§ 54.1-3400 et seq.) of Title 54.1.
  3. It shall be unlawful for any person to use in the course of the manufacture or distribution of a controlled substance, marijuana, or synthetic cannabinoids a license number which is fictitious, revoked, suspended, or issued to another person.
  4. It shall be unlawful for any person, for the purpose of obtaining any controlled substance, marijuana, or synthetic cannabinoids to falsely assume the title of, or represent himself to be, a manufacturer, wholesaler, pharmacist, physician, dentist, veterinarian or other authorized person.
  5. It shall be unlawful for any person to make or utter any false or forged prescription or false or forged written order.
  6. It shall be unlawful for any person to affix any false or forged label to a package or receptacle containing any controlled substance.
  7. This section shall not apply to officers and employees of the United States, of this Commonwealth or of a political subdivision of this Commonwealth acting in the course of their employment, who obtain such drugs for investigative, research or analytical purposes, or to the agents or duly authorized representatives of any pharmaceutical manufacturer who obtain such drugs for investigative, research or analytical purposes and who are acting in the course of their employment; provided that such manufacturer is licensed under the provisions of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act; and provided further, that such pharmaceutical manufacturer, its agents and duly authorized representatives file with the Board such information as the Board may deem appropriate.
  8. Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, any person who shall violate any provision herein shall be guilty of a Class 6 felony.

Whenever any person who has not previously been convicted of any offense under this article or under any statute of the United States or of any state relating to narcotic drugs, marijuana, or stimulant, depressant, or hallucinogenic drugs, or has not previously had a proceeding against him for violation of such an offense dismissed, or reduced as provided in this section, pleads guilty to or enters a plea of not guilty to the court for violating this section, upon such plea if the facts found by the court would justify a finding of guilt, the court may place him on probation upon terms and conditions.

As a term or condition, the court shall require the accused to be evaluated and enter a treatment and/or education program, if available, such as, in the opinion of the court, may be best suited to the needs of the accused. This program may be located in the judicial circuit in which the charge is brought or in any other judicial circuit as the court may provide. The services shall be provided by a program certified or licensed by the Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services. The court shall require the person entering such program under the provisions of this section to pay all or part of the costs of the program, including the costs of the screening, evaluation, testing and education, based upon the person’s ability to pay unless the person is determined by the court to be indigent.

As a condition of supervised probation, the court shall require the accused to remain drug free during the period of probation and submit to such tests during that period as may be necessary and appropriate to determine if the accused is drug free. Such testing may be conducted by the personnel of any screening, evaluation, and education program to which the person is referred or by the supervising agency.

Unless the accused was fingerprinted at the time of arrest, the court shall order the accused to report to the original arresting law-enforcement agency to submit to fingerprinting.

Upon violation of a term or condition, the court may enter an adjudication of guilt upon the felony and proceed as otherwise provided. Upon fulfillment of the terms and conditions of probation, the court shall find the defendant guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

Some of the courts we cover in Virginia:
Fairfax Circuit Court Richmond Circuit Court
4110 Chain Bridge Road
Fairfax, VA 22030
400 North Ninth Street
John Marshall Courts Building
Richmond, VA 23219
Fairfax General District Court Richmond General District Court
4110 Chain Bridge Road
Fairfax, VA 22030
920 Hull Street, Northside
Richmond, VA 23224-4070
Fairfax Juvenile & Domestic Relations District Court Richmond Juvenile & Domestic Relations District Court
4110 Chain Bridge Road
Fairfax, VA 22030-4020
Oliver Hill Courts Building
1600 Oliver Hill WaySuite C181
Richmond, VA 23219-1214
Prince William Circuit Court Loudoun Circuit Court
9311 Lee Avenue
Manassas, VA 20110
P. O. Box 55018 E. Market St., 3rd floor
Leesburg, VA 20178
Prince William General District Court Loudoun General District Court
9311 Lee Avenue
Manassas, VA 20110-5586
18 East Market Street
Leesburg, VA 20176
Prince William Juvenile & Domestic Relations District Court Loudoun Juvenile & Domestic Relations District Court
9311 Lee Avenue
Manassas, VA 20110-5555
18 East Market Street
Leesburg, VA 20176
Virginia Beach Circuit Court
2425 Nimmo Parkway
Building 10, 4th Floor
Virginia Beach, VA 23456-9017
Virginia Beach General District Court
2425 Nimmo Parkway
Virginia Beach, VA 23456-9057
Virginia Beach Juvenile & Domestic Relations District
Court
2425 Nimmo Parkway, Building 10
Judicial Complex 10 AMunicipal Center
Virginia Beach, VA 23456
Name of offense Statute Penalties
Prescription Fraud/Forgery in Virginia VA Code § 18.2-258.1 (A) To obtain or procure or attempt to obtain or procure the any controlled
substance, marijuana, or synthetic cannabinoids by fraud, deceit,
misrepresentation, embezzlement, subterfuge, forgery or alteration of a
prescription or of any written order; or by the concealment of a
material fact or by using or giving a false address
Class 6 felony
Prescription Fraud/Forgery in Virginia VA Code § 18.2-258.1 (B) Furnishing false or fraudulent information or omitting any information
from, or willfully make a false statement in, any prescription, order,
report, record, or other document required by Chapter 34 (§ 54.1-3400 et
seq.) of Title 54.1.
Class 6 felony
Prescription Fraud/Forgery in Virginia Va Code § 18.2-258.1 (C) In the manufacture or distribution of a controlled substance, marijuana,
or synthetic cannabinoids, using a fictitious, revoked, suspended
license number or license number issued to another person.
Class 6 felony
Prescription Fraud/Forgery in Virginia Va Code § 18.2-258.1 (D) Falsely assuming the title of, or representing to be, a manufacturer,
wholesaler, pharmacist, physician, dentist, veterinarian or other
authorized person for obtaining any controlled substance, marijuana, or
synthetic cannabinoids.
Class 6 felony
Prescription Fraud/Forgery in Virginia Va Code § 18.2-258.1 (E) Making or uttering any false or forged prescription or false or forged
written order.
Class 6 felony
Prescription Fraud/Forgery in Virginia Va Code § 18.2-258.1 (G) Affixing false or forged label to a package or receptacle containing any
controlled substance.
Class 6 felony
If violation of Va Code § 18.2-258.1 is a first offense and the accused
pleads guilty.  The court may place the accused on probation with terms
and conditions
If the accused fulfill the terms and condition of the probation. Class 1 Misdemeanor
Any violation in the terms and condition of the probation. Felony Offense

If you have been charged with prescription fraud/forgery in Virginia, contact our firm immediately for help.

We have client meeting locations in Fairfax, Richmond, Virginia Beach, Loudoun, Prince William, Fredericksburg & Lynchburg.

We also cover the following courts in Virginia:

Herndon General District Court
765 Lynn Street,
Herndon, VA 20170
Vienna General District Court
127 South Center Street,
Vienna, VA 22180
Falls Church General District Court
300 Park Avenue, Room 107E
Falls Church, VA 22046-3350

Article written by A Sris
Click to Chat

Disclaimer:

These summaries are provided by the SRIS Law Group. They represent the firm’s unofficial views of the Justices’ opinions. The original opinions should be consulted for their authoritative content.